Lebanon is a democratic republic with a unicameral legislature, the
National Assembly (Parliament), which is constituted by 128 members,
elected by universal adult suffrage for a normal term of 4 years.
The President of the National Assembly (Speaker) is elected by the
members of Parliament for the duration of the term of Parliament.
Lebanese Parliament website).
The Constitution was
approved on 23 May 1926, since amended a number of times. The
National Covenant (unwritten agreement) set a tradition, confirmed
later by the Taef Accords in 1989 in writing, whereby the President
is a Maronite Christian, the Speaker of the legislature is a Shi'a
Muslim and the Prime Minister is a Sunni Muslim.
Chief of State is President General Emile LAHOUD (since 24
November 1998); the Speaker
is Mr. Nabih BERRI (re-elected for the third time since 17 October
2000); the Head of
Mohammad Najib MIKATI
(since 26 October 2000) and Deputy Prime
The President of the Republic
is elected by the Legislature for a mandate of 6 years. The
Constitution does not allow for a re-election or extension. Only
once has the Constitution been amended to allow for a re-election of
the last President H.E. Mr. Elias Hraoui for another three years.
The President represents the unity of the Nation and as such remains
an arbiter among the different political groups. His duties are to
uphold the respect and implementation of the Constitution and to
safeguard the independence and integrity of the country. The
President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, which
come under the authority of the Council of Ministers.
Prime Minister is chosen by the President in consultation with the
members of the National Assembly. The ministers are chosen by the
Prime Minister in consultation with the members of the National
The Executive powers are, since the Taef Accords in 1989, in the
hands of the Council of
Ministers (the Cabinet or
Government) headed by a Prime Minister (President of the Council of
Ministers). The ministers do not have to be necessarily Members of
Parliament but are sanctioned by them. A collegial authority, it is
the highest decision-making body. It may dissolve Parliament at the
President’s request. Decisions are taken by consensus or a majority
vote of those attending. On issues deemed fundamental (amending the
Constitution, approving the budget and development plans …) a
two-third majority of the total number of the ministers is required.
Governments change as a result of resignation or losing a vote of
confidence in Parliament or in the aftermath of a general election.
amendments to the Constitution saw the establishment for the first
time in 1990 of the
(ten members), which has been entrusted with the
responsibility of ensuring the
constitutionality of the laws and to settle litigations that may
arise from presidential and parliamentary elections. Another novelty
is the provision for a second House of Parliament: a Senate, to be
implemented at a stage to be agreed upon.
Judiciary (comprising both secular and religious courts) is
independent. It is based on the French Judiciary system, the
Napoleonic Code. The Lebanese court system has three levels: courts
of first instance, courts of appeal, and the court of cassation.
The religious courts have jurisdiction on civil status matters
within their own communities, such as marriage, divorce and
Numerous Political Parties exist.
22 November 1943.
Provinces / Governorates (Mouhafazat) headed each by a Governor (Mouhafez):
Beirut, the Capital City,
Mount Lebanon (Regional Capital: Baabda),
North Lebanon (Regional Capital: Tripoli),
South Lebanon (Regional Capital: Saida),
Beka’a (Regional Capital: Zahle),
Nabatieh (Regional Capital: Nabatieh).
Each province is subdivided into ‘Cazas’, administered by an
Administrator (Qaem Maqam).
Mayors “Mukhtar” and Municipal Council Members are elected by
universal adult suffrage.
The President of the Republic
Prime Minister Mohammad Najib MIKATI
Court of Audit
Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Displaced
Ministry of Economy and Trade
Ministry of Emigrants
Ministry of Environment
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Industry
Ministry of Interior
Ministry of National Education Youth and Sports
Ministry of Post and Telecommunications
Ministry of Public Health
Ministry of Public Works
Ministry of Tourism
Office of the Minister of State for Administrative Reform (OMSAR)
The National Lebanese Army
The General Security
Internal Security Forces
Banque du Liban
(the Central Bank of Lebanon)
Investment Development Authority of Lebanon (IDAL)
Central Inspection Board
Civil Service Board
Central Administration for Statistics
National Council for Scientific Research
Embassy of Lebanon, Australia
Embassy of Lebanon, Canada
Embassy of Lebanon, Rome
Embassy of Lebanon,
Embassy of Lebanon, Washington D.C.
Consulate of Lebanon, Dubai
Lebanese National News Agency
Beirut International Airport
National Employment Office
Southern Lebanon Council
Deir el Qamar
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